Gross Value Added (GVA) (ESA 2010, 9.31) is defined as output value at basic prices less intermediate consumption valued at purchasers' prices. GVA is calculated before consumption of fixed capital. GVA is available in a breakdown by 10 main economic activities according to NACE Rev. 2 (Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community). NACE B+C+D+E = Mining and quarrying, manufacturing, electricity, gas and water supply, sewerage, waste management and remediation activities. The ESA 2010 (European System of Accounts) regulation may be referred to for more specific explanations on methodology. Data are calculated as chain-linked volumes (i.e. data at previous year's prices, linked over the years via appropriate growth rates). Growth rates with respect to the previous quarter (Q/Q-1) are calculated from calendar and seasonally adjusted figures while growth rates with respect to the same quarter of the previous year (Q/Q-4) are calculated from raw data.